Using the REST API to serve Elasticsearch data

Whilst PostgreSQL and PostGIS combine to provide a robust, flexible and powerful solution for Indicia’s data storage needs, reporting on very large datasets can slow down. This is mainly because it is impossible to create an indexing strategy which caters for the wide range of filtering options required. Unless you create indices which cover all possible combinations of filtering, sometimes you will find a query is unable to limit the records sufficiently using an index and resorts to either a table scan, or scanning and filtering a large results set returned from an index filter where the index wasn’t effective at reducing the number of records. Also, note that PostgreSQL prioritises robustness over sheer speed, a strategy which makes sense for a primary data store.

Elasticsearch, on the other hand, is a reporting and analysis solution that approaches things from the perspective of optimisation for performance. Although not ideal as a primary data store both because of the limitations in how it structures data and the possibility of data loss, it makes an excellent secondary data store to support reporting. The free, open-source version of Elasticsearch does not provide any authentication or authorisation which can be a problem for biological records data, especially if you choose to include confidential or sensitive records in your search index. Therefore, Indicia includes the tools required to set up proxies to your Elasticsearch server which restricts access to the data appropriately. The following points explain how this works:

  • Your Elasticsearch cluster is populated with all data at both full precision with a second copy of sensitive records in a “public friendly” blurred version. It is also populated with confidential records. Therefore the public should not have direct access to this cluster.

  • Elasticsearch aliases are configured with appropriate filters so that there are aliases which provide appropriate levels of access. E.g. a public alias which excludes the full precision versions of sensitive records and excludes all confidential records.

  • To avoid direct access, all access to the Elasticsearch cluster must be channelled via the Indicia warehouse which takes responsibility for ensuring that requests go via an alias with an appropriate level of access. To achieve this, at the very least the IP address of the cluster is kept secret. Ideally though either:

    • The cluster is set up on the same local area network with the Indicia warehouse but only the warehouse is accessible from outside the firewall.

    • The cluster is set up on another network (e.g. a cloud installation) and IP address blocking is used to ensure that only the warehouse and other authorised static IP addresses can access it.

  • The Indicia REST API can then be used to provide an authentication layer which restricts requests to the appropriate, filtered search index aliases. If the Elasticsearch server is configured to only receive requests from the Indicia warehouse server, then the Elasticsearch index can only be accessed via Indicia’s warehouse REST API, limiting the chance that restricted data will be accessed inappropriately.

  • An additional layer of proxy code in the Drupal site provides a redirect to the warehouse proxy which integrates with the user’s Drupal permissions.

Documentation on configuring an Elasticsearch index to link to your warehouse is available at This includes an explanation of how to deal with sensitive records by including both full-precision and blurred versions of each record and to configure index aliases to view the full-precision or blurred dataset.

There are 3 pieces of configuration required in your REST API’s config file on the warehouse which are illustrated in an example at First, you need a section in the config file containing an elasticsearch entry. The example below illustrates the content of this block:

* If this warehouse is configured to work with an Elasticsearch instance then
* the REST API can act as a proxy to avoid having to expose all the public
* APIs. The proxy can point to index aliases to limit the search filter.
$config['elasticsearch'] = [
  // Name of the end-point, e.g. /index.php/services/rest/es.
  'es' => [
    // Set open = TRUE if this end-point is available without authentication.
    // Otherwise it must be attached to a configured client.
    'open' => FALSE,
    // Name of the elasticsearch index or alias this end-point points to.
    'index' => 'occurrence',
    // URL of the Elasticsearch index.
    'url' => 'http://localhost:9200',
    // If specified, limit the access to the following operations. List of
    // HTTP request types (e.g. get, post, put, delete) each containing a
    // list of regular expressions for allowed requests, along with the
    // description of what that allows.
    // So, this example allows the following call:
    // which proxies to
    // http://my.elastic.url:5601/occurrence/_search?
    'allowed' => [
      'get' => [
        '/^_search/' => 'GET requests to the search API (/_search?...)',

So, the elasticsearch configuration entry defines a list of end-points that will be created within your REST API. There is a single end-point in the example above, /index.php/services/rest/es, but you can create any number you need to, e.g. to provide access to multiple filtered versions of the index via Elasticsearch aliases.

The documentation in the code above explains the different possible configuration options for the configuration section. Take particular care over the allowed section. This declares a list of HTTP methods that are allowed (lowercase, e.g. get, put, post, delete), and for each a list of regular expressions for the end-points within the elasticsearch server that may be accessed. These will be appended to the configured index or alias name so allowing you to selectively expose your Elasticsearch instance via a restricted set of APIs. The above example is limited to the Search API for example.

This configuration sets up the Elasticsearch index for use in Indicia and links it to a URL that can be accessed via your REST API, but it does not yet declare any authorisation. The configuration can be open, allowing it to be accessed without any authorisation, but in reality we are likely to want to use one of the existing RESTful web service authentication methods to access Elasticsearch. To do this, add a configuration key within your authentication method’s config called elasticsearch, containing an array of the Elasticsearch end-points you created earlier (just es in our case). So, for example you might enable Elasticsearch via the /index.php/services/rest/es end-point using hmacWebsite authentication by setting up the configuration as follows:

$config['authentication_methods'] = [
  'hmacWebsite' => [
    'resource_options' => [
      'elasticsearch' => ['es'],

If using client authentication (directClient or hmacClient) then there is one more step - you need to attach the appropriate Elasticsearch end-points to the client by adding a configuration key, similar to the way you attached them to the authentication methods. This is done by adding an elasticsearch configuration entry to the $config[‘clients’] entry for the client you are enabling access for, which contains an array of the config entries defined in $config[‘elasticsearcg’] which you wish this client to be able to access:

$config['clients'] = [
  'ABC' => [
    'shared_secret' => 'password',
    'projects' => [
    'elasticsearch' => ['es'],